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Treating Bronchiectasis

Currently, there is no cure for bronchiectasis and damage to the airways cannot be reversed. However, treatment can help to prevent further damage, reduce infections and reduce symptoms.

How is bronchiectasis treated?

Finding and treating any underlying cause

If the cause of your bronchiectasis can be found, treatment can help to control your symptoms and reduce further damage to your lungs.

Airway clearance techniques and exercises

It is very important to clear as much mucus as you can from your airways. Your doctor should refer you to a respiratory (chest) physiotherapist who will show you how to use airway clearance techniques to help you clear mucus from your lungs. Once you have been shown these, you should do these regularly yourself to prevent the
mucus building up in your airways and to reduce your risk of getting a chest infection.

If you are finding it difficult to clear your chest and you have not seen a respiratory physiotherapist, ask your doctor about a referral.

Pulmonary rehabilitation

Pulmonary rehabilitation is a structured programme of physical activity and education specifically designed for
people with long-term chest conditions. It is designed to improve your level of fitness and quality of life and can help
you manage your symptoms of breathlessness, cough and tiredness on a day to day basis. If you are having difficulty
with daily tasks because of your breathlessness you should be referred for pulmonary rehabilitation. 

Treatment to open up the airways

For some people with bronchiectasis, especially those who get very breathless, using an inhaler to open up your airways can help to improve your symptoms.

Managing a chest infection

Sometimes you may notice your symptoms getting worse over a couple of days. This is often referred to as a flare-up
or an exacerbation and is usually due to a chest infection. It is important that a chest infection is treated as quickly as
possible to prevent further damage to your airways.

Contact your GP as soon as possible if you notice any of the following changes:

  • Increased coughing
  • Increased amount or thickness of sputum
  • Darker colour sputum, usually yellow or green
  • Blood in your sputum
  • Increased breathlessness
  • Fever, aches or pains
  • Generally feeling unwell
  • Increased tiredness

If your GP thinks you have a chest infection, he or she will take a sputum sample and prescribe you a course of
antibiotics. You may have already been given a course of antibiotics to keep at home and start if you notice your symptoms getting worse.

Other things that you can do to help manage a flare-up of symptoms include:

  • Increasing the use of your bronchodilator inhaler (if you have one) to help control your symptoms
  • Using your airway clearance techniques more often to clear extra mucus from your airways
  • Resting more if you feel tired
  • Making sure you drink plenty of fluids
For more information on treatment for bronchiectasis and what to do if you have a flare-up, see the CHSS booklet Living with Bronchiectasis (PDF)